Famous Russian Inventors & Discoverers

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 1 Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Mendeleev
4
Famous As: Inventor of Periodic Table
Birthdate: February 8, 1834
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Tobolsk
Died: February 2, 1907
Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev created the Periodic Law and his version of the Periodic Table of Elements that revolutionized the field of chemistry. His table was independent of German chemist Julius Lothar Meyer’s version of the table. Mendeleev also assisted in the development of the first oil refinery in Russia.

 2 Mikhail Kalashnikov

Mikhail Kalashnikov
6
Famous As: Inventor of AK-47 Assault Rifle
Birthdate: November 10, 1919
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Kurya, Russia
Died: December 23, 2013
Russian military leader Mikhail Kalashnikov is remembered for inventing the AK-47 assault rifle, along with other weapons such as the AKM, the AK-74, the PK machine gun, and the RPK light machine gun. He was named the Hero of the Russian Federation and received the Order of Military Merit.

 3 Sergei Korolev

Sergei Korolev
6
Famous As: Scientist
Birthdate: January 1, 1907
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Zhytomyr, Ukraine
Died: January 14, 1966

Sergei Korolev was a Soviet spacecraft designer and rocket engineer who played an important role during the Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States of America in the 1950s and 1960s. He was largely responsible for developing the R-7 Rocket and launching Yuri Gagarin into space. Sergei Korolev also launched Belka, Strelka, and Laika into space.

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 4 Peter Carl Fabergé

Peter Carl Fabergé
3
Famous As: jeweller, inventor, artist
Birthdate: May 18, 1846
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg
Died: September 24, 1920

 5 Vladimir K. Zworykin

Vladimir K. Zworykin
3
Famous As: engineer, physicist, inventor
Birthdate: July 17, 1888
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Murom
Died: July 29, 1982

 6 Igor Sikorsky

Igor Sikorsky
4
Famous As: Aviator
Birthdate: May 25, 1889
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Kiev, Ukraine
Died: October 26, 1972

Igor Sikorsky was a Russian-American aviator known for his pioneering contributions to the development of both helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. Born in Russia, he immigrated to US as a young man and founded the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation in 1923. He is also credited for developing the first of Pan American Airways' ocean-crossing flying boats. 

 7 Alexander Stepanovich Popov

Alexander Stepanovich Popov
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Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: March 16, 1859
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Krasnoturinsk, Russia
Died: January 13, 1906

Alexander Stepanovich Popov was a Russian physicist best remembered for his pioneering work in transmitting radio signals. One of the first inventors to come up with a radio receiving device, Popov's work was contemporaneous with the groundbreaking work of Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi. Popov's life and career inspired the 1949 biographical film Alexander Popov which was directed by Herbert Rappaport.

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 8 Dmitri Ivanovsky

Dmitri Ivanovsky
7
Famous As: Botanist
Birthdate: October 28, 1864
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Gdov, Russia
Died: June 20, 1920

 9 Pavel Florensky

Pavel Florensky
2
Famous As: Theologian
Birthdate: January 22, 1882
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Yevlakh, Azerbaijan
Died: December 8, 1943

Russian theologian Pavel Florensky is best remembered for his essay The Pillar and the Ground of Truth. During Stalin’s regime and amid a phase of national atheism, he was sent to jail and also banished to Siberia for his religious beliefs, which he refused to renounce.

 10 Léon Theremin

Léon Theremin
2
Famous As: Inventor, Engineer, Physicist, Scientist
Birthdate: August 15, 1896
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg
Died: November 3, 1993

 11 Mikhail Mikhaylovich Gerasimov

Mikhail Mikhaylovich Gerasimov
2
Famous As: Archaeologist
Birthdate: September 2, 1907
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: July 21, 1970

 12 Rashid Sunyaev

Rashid Sunyaev
2
Famous As: Astrophysicist
Birthdate: March 1, 1943
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Tashkent, Uzbekistan

 13 Svyatoslav Fyodorov

Svyatoslav Fyodorov
2
Famous As: Ophthalmologist
Birthdate: August 8, 1927
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine
Died: June 2, 2000

Svyatoslav Fyodorov not just made a name for himself as an ophthalmologist but had also stepped into Russian politics, contesting as a presidential candidate. One of the pioneers of refractive surgery, he developed radial keratotomy, the first surgical cure of myopia, or nearsightedness, and a surgical treatment for glaucoma, too.

 14 Pavel Yablochkov

Pavel Yablochkov
1
Famous As: Electrical engineer
Birthdate: September 14, 1847
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Ouïezd de Serdobsk, Russia
Died: March 31, 1894

 15 Stephen of Perm

Stephen of Perm
1
Famous As: Painter
Birthdate: 1340 AD
Birthplace: Veliky Ustyug, Russia
Died: April 26, 1396

 16 Andrei Sychra

Andrei Sychra
1
Famous As: Musician
Birthdate: 1773 AD
Birthplace: Vilnius, Lithuania
Died: December 3, 1850

 17 Sergey Lebedev

Sergey Lebedev
0
Famous As: Chemist
Birthdate: July 13, 1874
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Lublin, Poland
Died: May 2, 1934

 18 Boris Borisovich Golitsyn

Boris Borisovich Golitsyn
0
Famous As: Physicist
Birthdate: February 18, 1862
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: May 4, 1916

 19 Nikolay Pirogov

Nikolay Pirogov
0
Famous As: Physician, Scientist
Birthdate: November 25, 1810
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Moscow, Russia
Died: December 5, 1881
Known for his pioneering use of field surgery, physician Nikolay Pirogov was the first to use anaesthesia in a field operation. A pioneer in the use of ether, too, he started his medical education at 14 and later taught surgery as a professor. He also reduced limp amputations significantly with his techniques.

 20 Oleg Losev

Oleg Losev
0
Famous As: Physicist, Inventor
Birthdate: May 10, 1903
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Tver, Russia
Died: January 22, 1942