Over the years, many scientists have emerged from the Spanish speaking countries. Franklin Chang-Díaz, the American Physicist worked on controlled fusion and fusion reactor design. He specialized in Applied Plasma Physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and received the doctorate degree from the same university. He became an astronaut in 1981 and later worked at NASA as well. Ellen Ochoa, the astronaut and 1st Hispanic woman to go to space pursued her research on information processing from Sandia National Laboratories and NASA Ames Research Center. She is also a co-inventor on patents in optics, object recognition and image processing. Other Hispanic scientists including Mario J. Molina, who stated that CFC’S are harmless and César Milstein, one of the fathers of modern medicine to developed the first monoclonal antibodies in 1975 are Hispanic scientists. Baruj Benacerraf, Jacinto Convit, Luis Alvarez are a few Hispanic scientists who also made their contributions to the world.