French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck acquired his love for plants while serving as a soldier in the French army. Following an injury, he quit his military career but retained his love for botany. He later taught zoology, studied the classification of invertebrates, and also coined the term biology.
Pierre Joliot is a French biologist best known for his research work at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). From 1985 to 1986, he served as the scientific advisor to the then prime minister of France.
Claude Bernard was a French physiologist whose scientific experiments led to several important discoveries. He is credited with coining the phrase milieu intérieur, which refers to the extracellular fluid (ECF) environment. He also pioneered the use of a blinded experiment to eliminate various experimental biases.
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi is a French virologist best known for her work that identified the human immunodeficiency virus as the cause of AIDS. Barré-Sinoussi's groundbreaking work earned her the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2008. An important virologist, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi has also received many other awards, including the Sovac Prize and the Körber European Science Prize.
Jacques Monod was a French biochemist known for his collaborative work with biologist François Jacob and microbiologist André Lwoff on the genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis. The three men were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1965. Monod is also widely regarded as one of the founders of molecular biology.
Nobel Prize-winning French biologist François Jacob is remembered for his discovery of operons, or regulator genes, with Jacques Monod. He had also been part of the French army during World War II. Though initially interested in physics and math, he later took up medicine to avoid a strict regime.
Jean Rostand was a French biologist, philosopher, and historian of science. He achieved popularity for his work as an activist, philosopher, and science writer. Jean Rostand's scientific work covered a wide range of biological fields like teratogeny, parthenogenesis, and amphibian embryology. His work in biology earned him the Henry de Parville Prize and the Binoux Prize.
Alain Bombard was a French physician, biologist, and politician. He is best remembered for his theory which states that a human being could survive a trip across the Atlantic Ocean without provision. Alain Bombard achieved popularity when he sailed across the Atlantic Ocean in a small boat without provision in order to test his theory.
Jules A. Hoffmann is a Luxembourg-born French biologist who is currently associated with the University of Strasbourg, where he holds a faculty position. He is known for winning the 2011 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine alongside Bruce Beutler for their discoveries regarding the activation of innate immunity. Jules A. Hoffmann is also the recipient of the Robert Koch Prize.
French naturalist Bernard Germain de Lacépède is best known for his contribution to fellow French naturalist Comte de Buffon's Histoire Naturelle. He enriched the world’s knowledge of fishes and reptiles. Following the rise of Napoleon, Lacépède joined the French Senate and later became a minister of Bourbon state.
Roger Guillemin is a French-American neuroscientist. He is best known for his work on neurohormones, which earned him the prestigious Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1977. Guillemin is also the recipient of other prominent awards such as the National Medal of Science, Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research, and Passano Award in Medical Sciences.
René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur was a French writer and entomologist. He is best remembered for his contribution to the field of entomology. René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur is also remembered for introducing the Réaumur temperature scale.
Henri Laborit was a French surgeon, writer, neurobiologist, and philosopher. He is best remembered for his role in the development of chlorpromazine, which is used to treat psychotic disorders. In 1957, Henri Laborit was honored with the Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award.
Félix Dujardin was a French biologist best remembered for his research on invertebrates, especially protozoans. He worked at the University of Toulouse, where he was a professor of mineralogy and geology. Félix Dujardin also taught botany and zoology at Rennes.
André Lwoff was a French microbiologist best remembered for winning the 1965 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his contribution to the understanding of lysogeny. Over the course of his career, André Lwoff was also honored with many other prestigious awards, such as the Leeuwenhoek Medal and the Keilin Medal.
Jeanne Villepreux-Power was a French marine biologist. She is credited with creating aquaria in 1832 in order to experiment with aquatic organisms. Nicknamed the Mother of Aquariophily, Villepreux-Power also invented the systematic application of the aquarium in order to study marine life. Jeanne Villepreux-Power was also a well-known author, conservationist, and dressmaker.
Starting his career as a botany demonstrator at the Jardin du Roi, French botanist Antoine de Jussieu later went on to establish his own principles of plant classification. He also taught at the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle and practiced medicine, mostly treating the poor and the needy.