The man who discovered photosynthesis, Jan Ingenhousz was born in the Netherlands but later settled in England. He is also remembered for his pioneering research on thermal conduction and the prevention of smallpox and even successfully inoculated the Habsburg family against smallpox. He was also Maria Theresa’s personal doctor.
Willem Einthoven was a Dutch physiologist and physician whose invention of the electrocardiogram in 1895 earned him the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1924. He is also credited with theorizing the existence of Einthoven's triangle, which is named in his honor.
Apart from being the first female university graduate in the Netherlands, the first Dutch female physician, and the first female to get a medical doctorate in her country, Aletta Jacobs was also a pioneering women’s suffrage activist. She traveled the world for her feminist mission with fellow suffragette Carrie Chapman.
Though he studied medicine and was a practicing physician, Johann Weyer is better known as a demonologist. He also offered one of the first scientific explanations of mental illnesses, stating that most witches were actually women who were suffering from mental health issues. He also stongly opposed Malleus Maleficarum.
Nobel Prize-winning Dutch physician and pathologist Christiaan Eijkman was the first to prove that poor diet is the cause of the disease beriberi, which in turn led to the discovery of vitamins. While he initially worked in the Dutch East Indies, he later collaborated with Robert Koch in his Berlin laboratory.
Gemma Frisius introduced the triangulation method for map-making, that is still an integral part of surveys these days. He also created detailed globes and mathematical instruments and was a co-founder of the Netherlandish school of cartography. He also released the first published drawing of a pinhole camera obscura.
Marion Koopmans is a Dutch virologist whose research considers noroviruses, emerging infectious diseases, and veterinary medicine. A respected virologist, Koopmans is part of the World Health Organization's scientific advisory group. Over the years, she has been honored with several prestigious awards, including the Machiavelli Prize. Currently, Marion Koopmans is working to understand the spread of Covid-19 disease.
Tina Strobos was a Dutch psychiatrist and physician remembered for her resistance work during the Second World War. When she was still a student, Strobos helped rescue over 100 Jewish refugees. In 1989, Yad Vashem recognized her rescue work with the Righteous Among the Nations honor. For her medical work, Strobos was honored with the Elizabeth Blackwell Medal in 1998.
Franciscus Sylvius was a Dutch scientist and physician. He is credited with establishing the first academic chemical laboratory in 1669. He is also credited with founding the Iatrochemical School of Medicine. Many of Franciscus Sylvius' students like Reinier de Graaf, Jan Swammerdam, and Niels Stensen went on to become notable personalities in their respective fields.
Apart from being a physician and the first Dutch psychiatrist to gain international fame, Frederik Willem van Eeden was also an author. Known for inventing the term lucid dream, he later penned books that revolved around themes such as symbolism and psychiatric experiences. He also translated Tagore’s works into Dutch.
Reinier de Graaf was a Dutch physician, anatomist, and physiologist. He is credited with making important discoveries in reproductive biology. De Graaf, who specialized in iatrogenesis and iatrochemistry, was the first to develop a syringe. He did so to inject dye into the reproductive organs of the human body to understand their structure and function.
Frans Cornelis Donders was a Dutch ophthalmologist who also served as a professor of physiology at Utrecht University. A respected and internationally acclaimed ophthalmologist, Donders directed the Netherlands Hospital for Eye Patients for many years. Frans Cornelis Donders was also one of the three main founders of scientific ophthalmology along with Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz and Graefe.
Cola Debrot was a Dutch medical doctor, lawyer, writer, and politician. From 1962 to 1970, he served as the Governor of the Netherlands Antilles and played an important role in reshaping the relationship between the Antilles, the Netherlands, and Suriname.
Volcher Coiter was a Dutch anatomist who first described cerebrospinal meningitis. Volcher Coiter is also remembered for his work during the French Wars of Religion where he served as field surgeon to John Casimir, Count Palatine of Simmern.
Piet Admiral was a Dutch anaesthesiologist best remembered for his popular technique while performing euthanasia. His technique has been adopted by American doctors and states for use in executions. Piet Admiral was one of the most popular practitioners of voluntary euthanasia.