Discoverers

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 1 
Hiram Bingham III
(Academic, explorer and politician)
Hiram Bingham III
3
Birthdate: November 19, 1875
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Honolulu
Died: June 6, 1956

Best known for his research on the Machu Picchu in the Peruvian Andes, American archaeologist Hiram Bingham III had learned mountaineering from his missionary father. Though not a professional archaeologist, he ventured into exploration after gaining an interest in South America while teaching South American history at Yale.

 2 
Ibn an-Nafīs
(Polymath)
Ibn an-Nafīs
3
Birthdate: 1213 AD
Birthplace: Damascus, Syria
Died: December 17, 1288
 3 
Saint Kevin
5
Birthdate: 0498 AD
Birthplace: Ireland
Died: June 3, 0618
 4 
John O'Keefe
(American-British Neuroscientist Known for Discovering 'Place Cells')
John O'Keefe
0
Birthdate: November 18, 1939
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: New York, New York, United States

John O'Keefe is an American-British neuroscientist and psychologist. He is best known for his discovery of place cells in the hippocampus. Along with May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser, he won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2014. He is also the recipient of several other awards. He spent his entire academic career at the University College London.  

 5 
Hans Egede
(Danish-Norwegian Missionary Known for His Mission in Greenland)
Hans Egede
3
Birthdate: January 31, 1686
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Harstad, Norway
Died: November 5, 1758

Danish-Norwegian missionary Hans Egede served the Lutheran Church. Known for his missionary campaigns in Greenland, he earned the nickname the Apostle of Greenland. He established Greenland’s capital, Nuuk, and lived among the Inuit community. He also translated books into Inuit and is revered as the National Saint of Greenland.

 6 
Paul Hermann Müller
3
Birthdate: January 12, 1899
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Olten, Solothurn, Switzerland
Died: October 12, 1965

Paul Hermann Müller was a Swiss chemist known for his discovery of insecticidal qualities and the use of DDT in the control of vector diseases. He received the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for this work. He began his career as a research chemist and later became the Deputy Director of Scientific Research on Substances for Plant Protection. 

 7 
Hormuzd Rassam
(Archaeologist)
Hormuzd Rassam
2
Birthdate: 1826 AD
Birthplace: Mosul, Iraq
Died: September 16, 1910
 8 
Percivall Pott
3
Birthdate: January 6, 1714
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: London, England
Died: December 22, 1788
 9 
Bernard Courtois
(French Chemist Known for First Isolating 'Iodine')
Bernard Courtois
2
Birthdate: February 8, 1777
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Dijon, France
Died: September 27, 1838

Bernard Courtois was a French chemist. He is credited with isolating iodine and morphine. Interested in chemistry from a young age, he learned how to make potassium nitrate for gunpowder for the French Revolution. He later found work at the École Polytechnique in Paris. Later in life, he went into manufacturing high-quality iodine and its salts. 

 10 
Kiyoshi Shiga
(Japanese Bacteriologist and Physician Who Discovered the Shigella Dysenteriae Microorganism)
Kiyoshi Shiga
2
Birthdate: February 7, 1871
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Sendai, Miyagi, Japan
Died: January 25, 1957

Shiga Kiyoshi was a Japanese bacteriologist and physician. He is credited for many scientific discoveries, including the discovery of the Shigella dysenteriae microorganism. He also conducted research on diseases such as trypanosomiasis and tuberculosis. Kiyoshi Shiga is also credited with making numerous advancements in immunology and bacteriology.

 11 
Kazimierz Fajans
(American Physical Chemist Who Discovered the Chemical Element 'Protactinium')
Kazimierz Fajans
2
Birthdate: May 27, 1887
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Warsaw, Poland
Died: May 18, 1975

Kasimir Fajans was a physical chemist of Polish-Jewish origin. He was a pioneer in the science of radioactivity. He is credited with the discovery of the chemical element protactinium. He began his career working under physicist Ernest Rutherford. He later researched radioactivity and nuclear reactions. He became the head of the Institute of Physical Chemistry in 1932.  

 12 
Aurel Stodola
(Engineer)
Aurel Stodola
1
Birthdate: May 10, 1859
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Liptovský Mikuláš
Died: December 25, 1942
 13 
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc
(French Astronomer Who Discovered the ‘Orion Nebula’ (1610))
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc
2
Birthdate: December 1, 1580
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Belgentier, France
Died: June 24, 1637

The son of an affluent surgeon from Provence, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc grew up to be a famous astronomer, known mostly for his research on longitudes. He is also remembered for discovering the Orion Nebula and owned a huge collection of coins, which he used to study history.

 14 
Fausto Elhuyar
1
Birthdate: October 11, 1755
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Logroño, Spain
Died: February 6, 1833
 15 
Yrjö Väisälä
(Finnish Astronomer, Meteorologist, and Physicist)
Yrjö Väisälä
1
Birthdate: September 6, 1891
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Kontiolahti, Finland
Died: July 21, 1971

Finnish astronomer, meteorologist, and physicist Yrjö Väisälä is remembered for contributing to the development of meteorological measurement. He also helped establish the Turku University Astronomical Observatory and served as its director. Also known as the Wizard of Tuorla, he was also part of the faculty of the Geodetic Institute of Turku University.

 16 
Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
(Swiss Chemist Who Discovered 'Ytterbium' and Co-discovered 'Gadolinium')
Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
1
Birthdate: April 24, 1817
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Geneva, Switzerland
Died: April 15, 1894

While he initially aspired to become a mining engineer, Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac later worked at a porcelain factory and eventually became a professor of chemistry and mineralogy. He is remembered for his research on atomic weights and rare earth elements. He discovered ytterbium and co-discovered gadolinium, too.

 17 
Joe Farman
(Geophysicist)
Joe Farman
1
Birthdate: August 7, 1930
Sun Sign: Leo
Birthplace: Norwich, England
Died: May 11, 2013
 18 
Anders Gustav Ekeberg
(Swedish Chemist Who Discovered 'Tantalum')
Anders Gustav Ekeberg
0
Birthdate: January 16, 1767
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: February 11, 1813

Swedish analytical chemist Anders Gustav Ekeberg is primarily known for his discovery of tantalum in 1802. He first studied at and later taught at the University of Uppsala. He was also a member of Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 2018, Tantalum-Niobium International Study Center started an award in his name to acknowledge work in the field of tantalum research. 

 19 
Louis-Nicolas Ménard
(Man of Letters)
Louis-Nicolas Ménard
0
Birthdate: October 19, 1822
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: February 9, 1901
 20 
Merrill Wallace Chase
(American Immunologist Who Discovered Cell Mediated Immunology)
Merrill Wallace Chase
0
Birthdate: September 17, 1905
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Providence, Rhode Island, United States
Died: January 5, 2004

Merrill Wallace Chase was an American immunologist best remembered for discovering cell-mediated immunology. He discovered that white blood cells were important agents of the immune system. Merrill Wallace ChaCse's discoveries laid the foundation for later research that identified the role of T cells, B cells, and other kinds of white blood cells.

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