Leopold II of Belgium reigned over Belgium as its second king from 1865 to 1909. He also owned the Independent State of the Congo from 1885 to 1908. Congolese people were subjected to torture and murder under Leopold's administration; the term crimes against humanity was coined by George Washington Williams in 1890 to describe the atrocities of Leopold's administration.
Philip the Handsome, son of Roman emperor Maximilian I, served as the Duke of Burgundy from 1482 to 1506 and then as the first Habsburg King of Castile, as Philip I, in 1506. Also known as the Fair, Philip died of typhoid fever in September 1506, although many suspected poisoning.
Albert I of Belgium ruled as King of the Belgians for over 25 years from 1909 to 1934. He played a crucial role during World War I, for which he is often referred to as the Soldier King or Knight King in Belgium. A renowned alpinist, Albert died in a mountaineering accident and his death was mourned around the world.
Belgian king Leopold III was despised by his countrymen for surrendering Belgium to the Germans during World War II. After being imprisoned by the Germans near Brussels, he went to Austria, and went back to Belgium later, only to be faced by a civil war that forced him to abdicate.
The elder son of King Leopold III of Belgium, Baudouin ruled Belgium for over 4 decades. He is remembered for his impartial treatment of both the Flemish- and French-speaking Belgian factions. He also served as the sovereign of the Belgian Congo and later supported Congolese independence.
10 Clovis I
Clovis I, regarded as the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, united the Frankish tribes under one leader and thus transformed the leadership system which had previously been based on leadership by a group of chieftains. His conversion to Catholicism led to widespread conversion among the Frankish people.
Godfrey of Bouillon was a French nobleman and a prominent leader of the First Crusade. He ruled the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1099 to 1100. He was the son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, and Ida, a noblewoman. He joined the First Crusade in 1096 and played a key role in the successful Siege of Jerusalem in 1099.
Princess Stéphanie of Belgium became the Crown Princess of Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia after her marriage to Crown Prince Rudolf, the son of Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I. Following the death of her husband and his mistress in a suicide-murder pact, she married a Hungarian nobleman.
Isabella of Portugal was Holy Roman Empress and Queen consort of Italy by her marriage to Emperor Charles V. She also served as the Queen consort of Spain, Queen of the Romans, and Lady of the Netherlands from 1526 to 1539. Due to Emperor Charles V's constant travels, she was the regent of Spain and under her regency Spain was quite prosperous .
Known as the May Queen for her 34-day stint as the queen of Italy, Queen Maria José of Savoy was the wife of Umberto II, the last Italian king. Following the fall of the monarchy, she went into exile in Switzerland. She also penned several books and worked for the Red Cross.