Famous Italian Historical Personalities

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 1 
Marcus Aurelius
(Philosopher)
Marcus Aurelius
30
Birthdate: April 26, 0121
Sun Sign: Taurus
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: March 17, 0180

Marcus Aurelius played an important role in the Roman Empire. A Stoic philosopher, Marcus was part of the Five Good Emperors and the last emperor of the Pax Romana—a 200-year-long period of relative peace in the Roman Empire. Also a writer, his work Meditations is regarded by many as one of the greatest works of philosophy.

 2 
Catherine de' Medici
(Queen Consort of France (1547 - 1559))
Catherine de' Medici
22
Birthdate: April 13, 1519
Sun Sign: Aries
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: January 5, 1589

Catherine de' Medici was an Italian noblewoman who played a key role in the political affairs of France during the rule of her sons, a period which came to be known as the age of Catherine de' Medici. Catherine is credited with saving the monarchy from deposition during the French Wars of Religion

 3 
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
(Former Holy Roman Emperor)
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
11
Birthdate: February 24, 1500
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Ghent
Died: September 21, 1558

Charles V served as the Holy Roman Emperor, King of Italy, and King of Germany from 1519 to 1556. From 1516 to 1556, he ruled as the King of Spain. His personal union of the American and European territories was the first collection of kingdoms that were described the empire on which the Sun never sets.

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 4 
Hadrian
(Roman Emperor)
Hadrian
8
Birthdate: January 24, 0076
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Italica, Hispania
Died: July 10, 0138
Hadrian was the Roman emperor from 117 to 138. Though he was married to Vibia Sabina, he was said to have many male lovers. He reconstructed the Pantheon and built the Temple of Venus and Roma. He also supported military discipline and came to be known as a benevolent dictator.
 5 
Nero
(Roman Emperor)
Nero
25
Birthdate: December 15, 0037
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Anzio, Italy
Died: June 9, 0068

Nero was the fifth Roman emperor whose rule was associated with tyranny. Five years into his reign, he had his mother Agrippina killed. The Great Fire of Rome, which occurred during his reign, is believed to have been instigated by him for political reasons. He was also responsible for eliminating many Christians from the empire.

 6 
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
(Former King of Italy (1900 – 1946))
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
7
Birthdate: November 11, 1869
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Naples, Italy
Died: December 28, 1947
Victor Emmanuel III ruled as the king of Italy from 1900 till 1946. He was also the emperor of Ethiopia and the king of the Albanians. He made Benito Mussolini the Italian prime minister after the March on Rome, but deposed him during the World War II Allied invasion.
 7 
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
5
Birthdate: December 26, 1194
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Iesi, Marche, Italy
Died: December 13, 1250

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor reigned as the King of Sicily, King of Germany, King of Italy, and King of Jerusalem. An avid patron of the arts and science, Frederick played an important role in supporting literature. He promoted the Sicilian School of poetry, which played an influential role in developing literature in Italy.

 8 
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
(Holy Roman Emperor from 1792 to 1806)
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
7
Birthdate: February 12, 1768
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: March 2, 1835
Francis II reigned as the last Holy Roman Emperor, from 1792 to 1806, and as the Emperor of Austria (as Francis I), from 1804 to 1835. Francis II fought against Napoleonic France in the Napoleonic Wars and lost at Austerlitz. Eventually, his daughter Marie Louise was married off to Napoleon.
 9 
Umberto II of Italy
(The Last King of Italy)
Umberto II of Italy
7
Birthdate: September 15, 1904
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Castle of Racconigi, Racconigi, Italy
Died: March 18, 1983

Umberto II, the only son of King Victor Emmanuel III, was the last king of Italy and ruled for just 34 days, from May 9 to June 12, 1946, and then went into exile. Also known as Re di Maggio, he was the de facto head of state since 1944.

 10 
Charles the Bald, Holy Roman Emperor
(9th-century king of West Francia (843–877))
Charles the Bald, Holy Roman Emperor
4
Birthdate: June 13, 0823
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Frankfurt, Germany
Died: October 6, 0877
 11 
Theodoric the Great
(King of the Ostrogoths (471–526))
Theodoric the Great
3
Birthdate: 0454 AD
Birthplace: Petronell-Carnuntum, Austria
Died: August 30, 0526
 12 
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
(Holy Roman Emperor (1745 - 1765))
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
4
Birthdate: December 8, 1708
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Nancy, France
Died: August 18, 1765
Married to Maria Theresa, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, was often outshone by his wife. Their marriage was a political step of Maria’s father, Emperor Charles VI. An art connoisseur, Francis was not as much interested in the administrative affairs of his kingdom as he was in the cultural aspects.
 13 
Romulus Augustus
(Roman Emperor)
Romulus Augustus
4
Birthdate: 0465 AD
Birthplace: Pannonia, Austria
Died: 0511 AD

Romulus Augustus went down in history as the last Western Roman emperor. The son of Orestes, who was killed by German warrior Odoacer, Romulus was spared and allowed to move to southern Italy. Though not much is known of him, it is believed he lived till the rule of Theoderic.

 14 
Piero the Unfortunate
(Ruler of Florence Known for His Bad Decisions that Led to His Downfall)
Piero the Unfortunate
3
Birthdate: February 15, 1472
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: December 28, 1503

A 15th-century lord of Florence, Piero the Unfortunate was the eldest son of Italian statesman Lorenzo de' Medici. Throughout his 2-year rule, he made foolish errors such as making an agreement accepting all the demands of French king Charles VIII, leading to a revolt in his kingdom.

 15 
Vitellius
(Roman emperor)
Vitellius
9
Birthdate: September 24, 0015
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: December 20, 0069
 16 
Charles IV of Spain
(Former King of Spain (1788 - 1808))
Charles IV of Spain
4
Birthdate: November 11, 1748
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Portici, Italy
Died: January 20, 1819
Charles IV of Spain reigned as the king of Spain from 1788 to 1808. His reign turned out to be a turning point in the history of Spain for various reasons. His reign is often criticized for allowing Spain to enter a series of unpropitious alliances, which eventually led to his abdication. 
 17 
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
(Holy Roman Emperor (1155 - 1190))
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
5
Birthdate: 1122 AD
Birthplace: Haguenau, France
Died: June 17, 1190
Frederick Barbarossa, or Frederick I, reigned as the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 to 1190. He had been the king of Germany and the king of Burgundy, too, and had earned the name Barbarossa for his red beard. He died while fighting in the Third Crusade in 1190.
 18 
Lucilla
(Ruler)
Lucilla
3
Birthdate: March 7, 0150
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: 0182 AD

The second-born daughter of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, Lucilla was married off to his father’s co-ruler, Lucius Verus, who was twice his age. After both Verus and Aurelius died, Commodus, Lucilla’s brother, came to power. Though Lucilla was politically conscious, she was eventually executed in her early 30s for plotting the murder of Commodus.

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
3
Birthplace: Rome
Died: 0495 BC
 20 
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
(King of Italy (1861 - 1878))
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
4
Birthdate: March 14, 1820
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Palazzo Carignano, Turin, Italy
Died: January 9, 1878

Victor Emmanuel II of Italy reigned as the king of Sardinia from 1849 to 1861. He then became the first king of a united Italy in 1861 and reigned as its king until his death in 1878. Since he played a major role in the Second Italian War of Independence, Italians started referring to him as Father of the Fatherland.

 21 
Joseph Bonaparte
(Older Brother of Napoleon Bonaparte)
Joseph Bonaparte
5
Birthdate: January 7, 1768
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Corte, France
Died: July 28, 1844

Older brother of Napoleon, Joseph Bonaparte, had been the king of Naples and Spain. After Napoleon’s fall, he was exiled to New Jersey, U.S. Later, in Europe, he lived a lavish life at Point Breeze, surrounded by all the wealth he had inherited, along with a classy collection of paintings.

 22 
Claude of France
3
Birthdate: October 13, 1499
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Romorantin-Lanthenay
Died: July 20, 1524
Piero di Cosimo de' Medici
3
Birthdate: September 19, 1416
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: December 2, 1469
 24 
Amadeo I of Spain
3
Birthdate: May 30, 1845
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Royal Palace of Turin, Turin, Italy
Died: January 18, 1890
 25 
Lothair I
(King)
Lothair I
3
Birthdate: 0795 AD
Birthplace: Aquitaine, France
Died: September 9, 0855
 26 
Poppaea Sabina
3
Birthdate: 0030 AD
Birthplace: Pompeii, Italy
Died: 0065 AD

The second wife of Roman Emperor Nero, Poppaea Sabina, apparently used her charms to get Nero to murder his mother, Agrippina, and then execute his first wife, Claudia Octavia. According to Roman historian Tacitus, a heavily pregnant Poppaea eventually succumbed to Nero’s anger, when he kicked her in her belly.

 27 
Umberto I of Italy
(King of Italy (1878 - 1900))
Umberto I of Italy
3
Birthdate: March 14, 1844
Sun Sign: Pisces
Birthplace: Turin, Italy
Died: July 29, 1900

Umberto I of Italy reigned as the king of Italy from 1878 until his death in 1900. His reign witnessed an attempted colonial expansion by Italy into the Horn of Africa, successfully annexing Somalia and Eritrea. Loathed by anarchists because of his approval of the Bava Beccaris massacre, Umberto I of Italy was assassinated by an anarchist named Gaetano Bresci.

 28 
Julius Nepos
(Emperor)
Julius Nepos
3
Birthdate: 0430 AD
Birthplace: Roman Italy
Died: May 9, 0480
 29 
Mary of Modena
(Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (1685 - 1688))
Mary of Modena
3
Birthdate: October 5, 1658
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Palazzo Ducale di Modena, Modena, Italy
Died: May 7, 1718

Mary of Modena, the second wife of King James II of England, who was also James VII of Scotland, reigned as the queen of England, Ireland, and Scotland. It is believed she induced James to escape to France during the Glorious Revolution, when William of Orange invaded England.

Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
3
Birthdate: January 12, 1751
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Royal Palace of Naples, Naples, Italy
Died: January 4, 1825
 31 
Majorian
(King)
Majorian
3
Birthdate: 0420
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Died: August 7, 0461
 32 
Cosimo I
(Duke of Florence and Tuscany)
Cosimo I
3
Birthdate: June 12, 1519
Sun Sign: Gemini
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: April 21, 1574
 33 
Roger II of Sicily
(King of Sicily)
Roger II of Sicily
3
Birthdate: December 22, 1095
Sun Sign: Capricorn
Birthplace: Mileto, Italy
Died: February 26, 1154
 34 
Marcus Claudius Tacitus
3
Birthdate: 0200 AD
Birthplace: Terni
Died: May 31, 0276
Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino
3
Birthdate: September 12, 1492
Sun Sign: Virgo
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: May 4, 1519
Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence
3
Birthdate: July 22, 1510
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: January 6, 1537
 37 
Margherita of Savoy
3
Birthdate: November 20, 1851
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Palazzo Chiablese, Turin, Italy
Died: January 4, 1926

It is believed that the Margherita pizza that is a popular dish today was actually first made by a pizza maker in Naples to treat Margherita of Savoy, who had grown tired of the royal gourmet food. The wife of King Umberto I, Margherita was the queen of Italy.

 38 
Bohemond I of Antioch
3
Birthdate: 1054 AD
Birthplace: San Marco Argentano, Italy
Died: March 3, 1111
 39 
Petronius Maximus
(Roman emperor of the West for two and a half months in 455)
Petronius Maximus
3
Birthdate: 0397 AD
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: May 31, 0455
 40 
Robert I, Duke of Parma
2
Birthdate: July 9, 1848
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: November 16, 1907
Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor
2
Birthdate: 0980
Sun Sign: Cancer
Birthplace: Kessel, Germany
Died: January 23, 1002
Princess Mafalda of Savoy
2
Birthdate: November 19, 1902
Sun Sign: Scorpio
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: August 27, 1944

The second daughter of Italian king Victor Emmanuel III, Princess Mafalda of Savoy grew up as any aristocratic lady would, learning 5 languages and various musical instruments. Known for her charitable spirit, she spoke against Hitler and was sent to a concentration camp, where she died in an Allied bombing.

Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor
2
Birthdate: 0955 AD
Birthplace: Saxony
Died: December 7, 0983
 44 
Joanna I of Naples
3
Birthdate: 1325
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Naples, Kingdom of Naples, Italy
Died: July 27, 1382

After her father died, Joanna I was made the heir to the throne of Naples by her grandfather, King Robert the Wise. Her life was marred by the murder of her first husband and the attacks of the Hungarian king Louis I. She was eventually imprisoned and killed by Charles of Durazzo.

 45 
Herod Agrippa II
(Last ruler from the Herodian dynasty)
Herod Agrippa II
2
Birthdate: 0027 AD
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: 0100 AD
 46 
Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor
2
Birthdate: 0825 AD
Died: August 12, 0875
Charles Albert of Sardinia
2
Birthdate: October 2, 1798
Sun Sign: Libra
Birthplace: Turin, Italy
Died: July 28, 1849
Maria Luisa of Parma
3
Birthdate: December 9, 1751
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Birthplace: Parma, Italy
Died: January 2, 1819

The queen consort of Spain Maria Luisa was the wife of Spanish king Charles IV and the daughter of Duke Philip of Parma. She often served as the muse of Spanish artist Goya. She also started the Order of Queen Maria Luisa to reward noble women. She was later exiled with Charles.

 49 
Romanos IV Diogenes
2
Birthdate: 1030 AD
Birthplace: Cappadocia, Turkey
Died: 1072 AD
 50 
Bona Sforza
(Queen of Poland Grand Duchess of Lithuania (18 April 1518 – 1 April 1548))
Bona Sforza
2
Birthdate: February 2, 1494
Sun Sign: Aquarius
Birthplace: Vigevano, Italy
Died: November 19, 1557

An ideal elite Renaissance woman, Bona Sforza was the queen of Poland and the wife of Sigismund I the Old. She is remembered for her fiery resistance to the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, when he suggested Bona be planted as a Habsburg spy to counter the Jagiellonian dynasty.