Sargon of Akkad reigned as the king of the Akkadian Empire from 2334 to 2284 BC. The first person to rule the Akkadian Empire, Sargon is sometimes recognized as the first person to rule over an empire in recorded history. He is credited with founding the Old Akkadian or Sargonic dynasty, which ruled for several years after his death.
Hammurabi reigned as the first Babylonian dynasty's sixth king from 1792 BC to 1750 BC. During his reign, Hammurabi conquered the city-states of Eshnunna, Larsa, and Mari and brought nearly all of Mesopotamia under Babylonian rule. He is also known for issuing the Code of Hammurabi, which is one of the first law codes to establish the presumption of innocence.
Ashurbanipal reigned as the king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 669 BC until his death in 631 BC. Widely regarded as the last great king of Assyria, Ashurbanipal is best remembered for the establishment of the famous Library of Ashurbanipal. The library has great historical significance as it holds texts like the Epic of Gilgamesh, the earliest surviving notable literature.
Khosrow I was a 6th-century Persian king of the Sasanian Empire. Though most of the information on him is known through legends, he is believed to have been a patron of the arts. He introduced major tax reforms and also brought changes to the Sasanian bureaucracy.
Nur ad-Din reigned as the Emir of Aleppo from 1146 to 1174. One of the most important members of the Turkomen Zengid dynasty, Nur ad-Din also reigned as the Emir of Damascus from 1154 until his death on 15 May 1174. Nur ad-Din is considered a prominent figure of the Second Crusade.
Ur-Nammu reigned as the King of the Neo-Sumerian Empire from 2112 BC to 2094 BC. He is credited with founding the Third Dynasty of Ur, which is also referred to as the Neo-Sumerian Empire, in southern Mesopotamia. Ur-Nammu is best remembered for creating the Code of Ur-Nammu, the oldest known extant legal code in the world.
Shalmaneser III reigned as the King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 859 BC to 824 BC. His long reign was marked by a series of campaigns against the Babylonians, the eastern tribes, the nations of Syria and Mesopotamia, as well as Urartu and Kizzuwadna. It is in his annals that the Chaldeans and Arabs first appear in recorded history.
Shalmaneser V reigned as the King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 727 BC until his death in 722 BC. He is best remembered for his conquest of Samaria, which brought about the fall of the Kingdom of Israel. Apart from his war against the Israelites, Shalmaneser V is also believed to have dealt with other campaigns in the west.
Shalmaneser I reigned as the King of the Middle Assyrian Empire from 1273 BC to 1244 BC. According to his annals, which were discovered at Assur, Shalmaneser I conquered eight countries and destroyed the fortress of Arinnu in his first year as king of Assyria. He is also credited with founding the city of Kalhu.