Galen was a Greek physician, philosopher, and surgeon in the Roman Empire. Regarded as one of the most proficient medical researchers in ancient history, Galen influenced the growth of several scientific disciplines, such as neurology, pharmacology, pathology, physiology, and anatomy. Thanks to the translation of his works into Arabic, Galen's approach to medicine remains influential in the Islamic world.
Georgios Papanikolaou was a Greek physician who was a pioneer in early cancer detection. He reported that uterine cancer cells could be detected in vaginal smears as early as 1928, but his work did not receive much attention until the 1940s. He invented the Papanicolaou test, commonly known as the Pap smear or Pap test for cervical screening.
Often regarded as ancient Greece’s first female physician, Agnodice is believed to have disguised herself as a man to study midwifery. Some sources, however, claim she was a mythical figure. Dragged to court by her jealous male counterparts, she later revealed her gender. She paved the way for future female doctors.
Greek physician Erasistratus is often regarded as the founder of physiology. Apart from co-establishing a school of anatomy in Alexandria, he conducted pathbreaking research on circulatory and nervous systems. He described the epiglottis and named the tricuspid valves of the heart. He also promoted the concept of pneumatism.
Initially a rhetorician, Greek-born Asclepiades of Bithynia later became a popular physician in Rome, where he popularized Greek medicine. He countered the humoral theory of Hippocrates and promoted his own theory, which stated that diseases moved through the body like atoms. He treated mentally ill patients with innovative treatments, such as music.
Grigoris Lambrakis was a Greek physician, politician, and track and field athlete. He played an important role during the Second World War as a prominent member of the Greek resistance to the occupation of Greece by the Axis Powers. After the war, Grigoris Lambrakis went on to become a popular anti-war activist.
Soranus of Ephesus was a Greek physician who popularized the Methodic school of medicine in 2nd century AD. One of the most popular gynecologists of his time, Soranus wrote several books, including On Midwifery and the Diseases of Women which includes descriptions of contraceptive measures. He also explained the positions of the fetus in the womb in his treatise, Gynaecology.
Aretaeus of Cappadocia was an ancient Greek physician. He was probably a citizen of Cappadocia and is believed to have lived in the second half of the second century AD. His eight treatises on diseases are counted amongst the most important Greco-Roman medical works of all time. He gave accurate descriptions of numerous diseases, including asthma, pneumonia, tetanus, and epilepsy.
Though a qualified dentist, Panagiotis Gionis is more famous as a table tennis player. The Greek sportsperson has represented his country in 4 Olympics and has also won a Mediterranean Games gold, apart from both a bronze and a silver at the European Championship. He now plays for the German club Borussia Düsseldorf.
Paul of Aegina was a 7th-century Byzantine Greek physician. He is remembered for writing the medical encyclopedia Medical Compendium in Seven Books. Born in the island of Aegina, he became a physician and visited many cities, practicing his profession. His body of work is unrivaled in its accuracy, due to which he is considered the “Father of Early Medical Writing.”
Dimitris Kremastinos was a Greek physician and politician. From 1993 to 1996, he served as the Minister of Health and Welfare and Social Security. He also served at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens where he was a respected Professor of Cardiology. Dimitris Kremastinos was also the personal physician of former Prime Minister of Greece Andreas Papandreou.
Caelius Aurelianus was a physician who flourished in 5th century AD. He is remembered for translating Soranus of Ephesus' work On Acute and Chronic Diseases from Greek to Latin. The translation is considered important because the original work has been lost. An important physician in his own right, Aurelianus is considered one of the greatest Greco-Roman physicians of his time.
Thessalus was an ancient Greek physician. He was the son of the brilliant physician Hippocrates, considered to be one of the most outstanding figures in medical history. Thessalus was one of the founders of the Dogmatic school of medicine. His sons Hippocrates III and Draco II also became prominent physicians in their own right.
Panayotis Potagos was a 19th-century Greek physician. He was also a renowned traveler. Beginning his travels in 1867, he visited many countries, including Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and India. He then traveled to Egypt and then ventured into Africa, making his way to the Mbomou and Uele rivers. He published an account of his numerous trips.
Heraclides was an ancient Greek physician and the son of Hippocrates I. He was also the father of the legendary physician Hippocrates II, usually known as Hippocrates, one of the pillars of medicine. He was thus part of a family of physicians and was rumored to be related to Asklepius, the god of medicine.